Young Adult

Reaper-Sensation: Children Of Blood And Bone

By Niki

 

One of the most anticipated reads of 2018 and Jimmy Fallon's Tonight Show 2018 Summer Read, Tomi Adeyemi's Children Of Blood And Bone is an Afro-mystical re-awakening.

Covers: Macmillan Publishers and Ouida Books. Image: Elena Seibert via Macmillan Publishers.

 
They killed my mother.
They took our magic.
They tried to bury us.
NOW WE RISE.
 

I

have been a part of many conversations about diversity and representation, and thought I understood what it meant to be represented until a few pages into Tomi Adeyemi’s debut novel. The opening scene, presided over by a character called Mama Agba, is reminiscent of a female elder authority that shaped my childhood. As per tradition, I would sit around her whilst she wove tales of culture and folklore. To see this fictionalised in Children Of Blood And Bone was thus nostalgic.

The story follows a young girl: Zélie. She is haunted by the murder of her mother and the subjugation of her Reaper clan - one of the ten Maji clans that suffer abuse from corporal powers and are oppressed by the ruling class of Orïsha. Circumstances see her journeying and fighting alongside her brother and an escaped princess to restore magic to the land and allow her clan and the nine other Maji clans in the land, a fighting chance.


In this Afro-mystical novel, the magical, in the African sense, is not othered as something from a scary, unknown, feared presence but, rather, portrayed as a gift from the deities.

The quest takes Zélie, Amari, Inan and Tzain and their pursuants from city to floating villages, up mountains and into sacred underground lairs. They sleep in tents in the deserts, fight in arenas, meet shady characters in caves and sail over walls on the back of mythical creatures. Adeyemi’s debut novel takes place across different terrains and climates, all within a singular imagined country. What is most striking about the multifaceted terrains in the book is Adeyemi’s mirroring of natural phenoms to Nigeria’s topography.

As with many Young Adult novels, Children Of Blood And Bone is also love story—in the romantic and familial sense—as well as a story of self discovery. The added beauty of this narrative is its Afro-mysticism: a genre that is finally getting its deserved spotlight after existing off the fringes of literary discourse, and being conflated with magic-realism. In this Afro-mystical novel, the magical, in the African sense, is not othered as something from a scary, unknown, feared presence but, rather, portrayed as a gift from the deities. These deities are pointedly inspired by the Yoruba tradition.

 

Names Mean Things

The deities in Adeyemi’s novel are pointedly inspired by the Nigerian, Yoruba tradition. This influence is similarly evident in the naming of places and characters within the novel. For one, the entire province is called Orïsha1—representative of the head of all divinity in the Yoruba tradition. This anchoring of the overall location of the narrative to the divine through naming, makes it a great playing field for a journey to restore lost magic.

Particularly in Ilorin—the fishing town where Zélie and her family reside—the older generation are given the respect of Mama and Baba. This naming, the people and the town are, again, based on Yoruba culture. For this reason, I was very disappointed by the ambiguity of the names given to the major characters. If anything, these names stand out for the wrong reasons; they felt like a pandering to a wider Western audience, and an attempt to create a space for them to relate to the characters at base level.

In Yoruba tradition, children are named to reflect the circumstance of birth, or, as prophecy into their destinies. The names given to a child usually holds weight both on paper and when sounded out. In both reading and sounding out the names particularly of the four central characters, I felt no depth. On the other hand, as a friend suggests, the ambiguity of the names could be seen as representative of the loss of and disdain for magic across Orïsha. In this sense, Zélie and Tzain’s names can be seen to reflect the new Maji existence under their tyrannical, magic-hating ruler, and displacement from their true identity. Though this perspective is equally valid, it is with one exception: the novel’s time frame.

The young sojourners in the novel were born to parents who wielded or fought against magic. Zélie is a replica of her powerful Reaper mother—murdered by the oppressive authority in a bid to eradicate all who had tasted magic. Zélie’s survival stemmed from the fact that Maji children only come into their powers at the age of thirteen - she was six when her mother was murdered and magic ceased to exist in Orïsha. However, her birth and that of her brother, Tzain, occurred in a period where parents expected Maji children to grow into their divine destinies and, as such, their names should reflect this.

 

Lagos Under A Microscope

Lagos, the place the King, royalty and the wealthy flock to and the most densely populated city with a great deal of slum-living is the centre of Orïsha. In many ways, Adeyemi’s presentation of Lagos, Orïsha is very similar to the reality of Lagos, Nigeria. Early in the story, the reader follows Zélie’s singular visit to Lagos and the picture of gross wealth disparities, market haggling and abuse of corporal power is very reminiscent of Lagos. However, the language of discourse in these scenes keeps the Lagos in Children Of Blood And Bone distinct.

Where Zélie trades in the Lagos market, her capabilities as a trader is recognised. This setting highlights how wealth gaps and abject poverty are sustained by the wealthier class. The King’s ever rising Maji tax-levies—designed to force Maji folks into prisons, slavery and to keep them poor—is what drives Zélie to Lagos. Where her father and brother hope that she can return with enough to last them through the month, Zélie is able to barter the rare fish she has in exchange for almost a year’s worth of money. That someone, desperate to eat fish to which the King has no access, can hand over enough cash to last Zélie, her father and brother a year, while Zélie and her family live day-to-day, is a travesty occurring in Adeyemi’s world, and likewise, in the real world.

Another prominent theme that comes up in the royal family is the issue of bleaching. The lighter skin is seen as a sign of royalty while darker skin is distasteful and scrubbed away with potions and creams. Princess Amari, darker than her family, is forced by her mother to undergo beauty rituals with the aim of lightening her skin. This experience leaves her with a skewed perception of her own beauty—a trajectory very similar to that of many young men and women across Nigeria and the rest of Africa.

Zélie’s interaction with the guards, on an attempt to enter Lagos, likewise reflects another societal issue: the sexual danger faced by women. Her status as Maji or “maggot,” as non-Maji individuals are hatefully labelled, presents her as fodder for the guards’ sexual desires. This perception of women as weak and easy to attack has allowed for sexual assault to be an issue women face. For the fear of being abused and murdered, she has to temper her reaction and adopt a false meekness—an all too real experience for many women.

 

Hate: A Four Letter Legacy

What takes Children Of Blood And Bone from a simple YA novel to a masterpiece is the level of complexity added by the self-loathing that drives two characters. For a particular character, the duality of being something one hates causes alliances and allegiances to shift. The internal and external conflicts these characters come against, owing to their understanding of the past and their position on the quest to restore magic, gives this story layers that are impressive for a first time author.

Tackling and sustaining the theme of deep hate—the kind that drives people to kill without mercy and teach hate to their offspring—is not an easy task, as any author could fall into the trap of presenting hate from a very linear perspective. Thankfully, Adeyemi does not. She writes characters that stay true to themselves. While there are twists and turns that make the book a fantastic read, character reactions are never implausibly outlandish or written to force excitement in the narrative. The plot and characters flow seamlessly.

The story ends on something of a cliffhanger. There is an ambiguity around the the success of the quest; creating an eagerness, post-completion of the novel, to break down theories therein. The end of Children Of Blood And Bones creates a clear path for new themes to be explored in the subsequent novel in the trilogy—Children Of Virtue And Vengeance. Adeyemi’s debut YA novel has a freshness and a simplicity that make it compelling. You may call it a must-read!



Have you read Adeyemi's Children Of Blood And Bone? Tell us what you think about it!

 

Note

1 The word 'orisha' is related to several other Yoruba words referring to the head. It can also be spelt orixa or orisa. An orisha may be said to arise when a divine power to command and make things happen converges with a natural force, a deified ancestor, and an object that witnesses and supports that convergence and alignment. An orisha, therefore, is a complex multidimensional unity linking people, objects, and powers.

In this story, the ruling class of Orïsha can be seen as a metaphor for oppressive classes or races across the world, with the Reaper clan and other formerly magic clans being forced to live in slums, work as slaves and suffer abuse from corporal power.

 

Wake Me When I'm Gone

By Husseina

A review of Wake Me When I'm Gone by Odafe Atogun.

Image: Canongate Books.

Image: Canongate Books.

 

B

eing the most beautiful woman in the region, every man, including the chief of her village, sought Ese’s hand in marriage. Ese, refusing all their advances, chooses instead to marry Tanto - the man with she was in love with. This decision to follow her heart is, however, seen as an act of defiance against the chief, costing Ese her family who disown her. The protagonist’s insistence on following her heart gets her in trouble throughout Atogun’s second novel - Wake Me When I’m Gone.

Very early on, Tanto dies from a tragic accident on his farm, leaving Ese and their young son, Noah. Distraught, Ese closes her stall in the market on Main street in order to spend more time with her son. On finding out that Ese had closed her stall, the merchants - who all loved her - stopped coming to the market. Despite pleas from the villagers, Ese refuses. As a result, business drastically declines, causing the village to go into a recession. Adamant to not return, Ese is then turned against by the whole village.

Simultaneously, the protagonist battles a custom in the village which mandates widows to remarry six months after the death of their spouse, lest they give up custody of their child(ren) to the husband’s eldest male sibling. Again, the chief and other young men in the village flock around her, in the bid for her hand in marriage. Ese, however, refuses; standing by her decision to marry only for love. Here, the reader is introduced to Ese’s strong personality and the consequences she faces on the path to fulfil her destiny.

 

Tradition And Modernity: Parallels or Binary Opposites?

An underlying theme throughout Atogun’s story is the contrast between tradition and modernity. In the village, the people adhere to many superstitions cum customs which are enforced by the high priests. Ese, on the other hand, despite being a product of the same environment, is shown to think progressively. She is able to distinguish between what is right and wrong, can make objective assessments and come to her own conclusion.

What is interesting about how the author portrays the contrast is his approach, which strays from the conventional equation of progressive thinking exclusively to exposure or modernisation. It brings to mind, though in juxtaposition, a quote by Aristotle, who once said: “it is the mark of an educated mind to hold a thought without accepting it.” In Wake Me When I’m Gone, Ese has never received any form of education yet she exhibits the traits of an educated mind.

This forces one to rethink how an ‘educated’ person is defined; who is excluded from these definitions and the consequences of that follow. In this, I choose to look at Ese’s story as a metaphor for progress in Africa, and a critique of the modernisation theory of development. We, as Africans, can think of our own organic solutions, and do not need the validation from the West. Just like Ese, we also have the ability to be progressive, and to question what has come to be seen and accepted as the norm in our societies.

 

Tradition As A Tool Of Oppression

Conversely, Atogun explores tradition as a regressive tool. In Ese’s village, orphans are seen as bad luck, and treated very badly. If not taken in by a relative, as in the case of the group of orphan boys Noah meets, they are exiled. Sadly, this idea of the ‘cursed’ child - specifically the orphan child - is no different from existing superstitions upheld in places around the world like India and Nigeria. The belief is that these evil children are responsible for the misfortune that (often) befalls their parents. Thus, they are treated as outcasts and in other cases, killed.

Defiant, Ese takes in the orphans who live outside the village into her house as her own children. As a result of this, she has to flee for her life from the village or face death. On moving to another village after her exile, Ese finds tradition transcends her village. Nonetheless, she cares for an orphan, and this act of kindness results to yet another tragedy. This further fuels Ese in her fight to overturn this custom. With the support of a progressive chief, the villagers and a visiting professor, she is able to banish this custom despite threats of madness, blindness and death by the high priests.

The visiting professor’s contribution was particularly notable as he himself was an orphan that had be exiled from the same village, yet was luckily adopted by a loving couple. The professor, his travels and his accomplishments served as a testimony against the belief of orphans; showing that love and humanity, if given a chance, can go a long way.

"

“You see, the gods the priests they worship are a creation of their evil minds, which they use to put fear in people in order to control them. Such gods do not exist. And the laws they make are the wicked lies of a very ignorant people... there is God up in heaven to whom all power belongs. He is not a god you can access through tradition but through love and it is that love that is lacking in the heart of the priests and all who uphold their laws."

– The Professor.

Atogun, through his protagonist, encourages us to always question the norm, as opposed to accepting things because they have ‘always’ been. Sometimes, culture can be toxic and harmful, and can stand in the way of progress and development.

From honour killings to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), there are many traditions all over the world which are very backwards yet some refuse to let go of them despite how detrimental. Just like the high priests, people all over the world also use religion, culture and tradition to justify all sorts of horrific and unjust acts. Atogun, through his protagonist, encourages us to always question the norm, as opposed to accepting things because they have ‘always’ been. Sometimes, culture can be toxic and harmful, and can stand in the way of progress and development. Atogun highlights this.

 

The Representation Of The Nigerian Woman

I was highly impressed with Atogun’s construction and representation of the Nigerian woman, especially for one who lives in a village. Ese is a very progressive character who is constantly questioning and challenging the norm. She refuses to accept things in the name of tradition, customs and/or systems. This narrative subverts the conventional narrative surrounding women who live in the rural parts of third world countries. The stereotypes that surround such women include – ignorant, backwards and uneducated.

Postcolonial feminist scholar Chandra Talpade Mohanty perfectly articulates the way in which women, third world women especially are generalised and stereotypes as backwards, ignorant and waiting to be saved by the superior being (men or white people) in ‘Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism’. Mohanty critiques representation of ‘third world’ women as a singular monolithic subject. Ese, despite never going to school or visiting a city can be described as a feminist on all accounts. Despite growing up in a deeply patriarchal and misogynistic society, she advocates for equality without ever being formally taught about the concept. So, you who is ‘educated’, what then is your excuse?

Ese’s character makes the reader rethink their assumptions about the regular woman from the village — or any woman, in fact. She is a woman who personifies fortitude, bravery and resilience, yet kind and loving. She is strong yet gentle; she is a beautiful woman of substance. Through her, the idea of beauty and substance is normalised, subverting the misconception that beautiful women are only that, and lack substance. She shows that women are dynamic, and should not be essentialised and fixed to a few simplistic characteristics.

 

Folktale Nostalgia

Surprisingly, I really enjoyed reading Wake Me When I’m Gone. I say surprisingly, because it is not a book I will traditionally pick up. I usually go for the more complex stories with less obvious lessons. This book, however, proves that there can be beauty in simplicity. Reading it brought back memories of my childhood days: watching tales by moonlight and listening to older aunties, parents and grandparents tell folktales. Atogun’s minimalist approach to writing makes it a book all age groups can read. His writing is very accessible with simple and direct sentences reminiscent of that of Ernest Hemingway.

Perhaps for the sake of telling a simple story or spotlighting Ese, the author applies this sense of minimalism to all other characters but Noah. As a result, I found that his characters were undeveloped. Though this does not take away much from the story, it would have been a plus to have more rounded characters. Nonetheless, Atogun's writing and use of magical realism, Leila Aboulela avers, can be likened to Ben Okri and Elechi Amadi.

In order to savour this novel in its enterity, the reader should allow one's self to be swallowed by fiction and be immersed the world the author creates. All in all, Wake Me When I’m Gone is a story that challenges yet embraces tradition. It reminds one that the path to one’s destiny is hardly ever linear but filled with questioning moments. For as long as one keeps his/her eye on the goal and works hard with purpose, even the most impossible is attainable.

 

An Advance Reading Copy (ARC) of Odafe Atogun's Wake Me When I'm Gone was kindly sent to The Book Banque by the author, in exchange for a review. All thoughts expressed in this review are honest, and that of the writer, Husseina. Odafe Atogun's Wake Me When I'm Gone was published in the UK by Canongate in August 2017, and will be published by Ouida Books in 2018.



 

Return To Leopard Knocks

By Niki

A review of Sunny And The Mysteries Of Osisi by Nnedi Okorafor.

Guest edited by Suyi Davies Okungbowa.

Image: Cassava Republic; Cover Design: Anna Morrison; Illustration: Greg Ruth.

Image: Cassava Republic; Cover Design: Anna Morrison; Illustration: Greg Ruth.

It was with a giddiness that I settled into reading Sunny And The Mysteries Of Osisi, returning to Leopard Knocks to see how Sunny is faring a year-and-a-half into discovery of her Leopard identity and defeating Black Hat Okoto. There is no ease into this story: The reader is thrust back into the Leopard world as Sunny, at midnight, goes searching for tainted peppers to make the special Leopard Knocks pepper soup. She finds a great deal more than peppers; barely escaping with her life, after being attacked by a mystery lake creature.

The mystical takes centre stage in this book as Sunny is haunted both by the fearsome attack that opens the novel but also by vivid inexplicable dreams she fails to share with her fellow Oha Covena or mentor, Sugar Cream. The opening incident and the dreams are central to the journey Sunny will take in this novel as they point the way both to her nemesis, Ekwensu, and her destiny in Osisi.

The journey to Osisi — a place beyond succinct description — leads Sunny to further encounters with the weird and wonderful of her mystical world; the good and the downright terrifying. Okorafor also takes time out in this narrative to distinguish between the cruelty of human ideas of magic and the complex reality of mystical realms. This is done by exploring the bastardisation of confraternities in Nigerian Universitiesb by people who believe magic can only be tapped into through cruelty.

 

Nightmare Or Reality?

From the outset, Sunny is thrust into dangerous experiences. Okorafor is ruthless in her choices of the incidents the still-young Sunny faces in Sunny And The Osisi Mysteries, especially as many of these mystic creatures she comes up against are older and experienced. This tends to leave both Sunny and the reader fretting over her survival.

The description in this novel is captivating to the point that scenes described are capable of encroachment and becoming one's dreams/nightmares. Whilst initially sure that this was a book I would gobble up in one sitting, I was forced to spread it over two days; needing breaks to catch my breath and escape the terrifying encounters its characters kept coming up against. The world Okorafor creates for Sunny and co. is obsessive, enthralling and fearsome - so much so that I am baffled that this is a Young Adult (YA) novel.

To have Okorafor’s work exist today for the younger generation, especially African, is a call for celebration. Her perspective on the mystical is very separate from the Nollywood theatrics around representation of Native Doctors and the fear and cruelty with which certain communities treat children deemed supernatural. Okorafor writes about a world in which magic and mysticism are not sinful but cultural. Leopard Knocks is also a place where tribal conflict — a major Nigerian issue — is not much of a problem. Leopard individuals all speak a range of traditional languages as it better enables communication and learning.

 

Confratheatrics

Sunny’s uniqueness, her albino skin aside, is the fact that she alone in her immediate family is a Leopard person. Unlike Orlu, Sasha and Chichi, she has no one at home with whom to speak about the weird and wonderful journey she is on. Her only saving grace is her deceased maternal grandmother, who also was a Leopard person. This means that her parents are aware of her Otherness but also know that it is a discussion they can never have, further adding to Sunny’s sense of isolation in the real world.

Her older brothers, Chukwu and Ugonna, are too wrapped up in the business of being young men to notice their pubescent sister, that is until Chukwu goes to University and falls into the hands of cultists. Okorafor uses Chukwu’s university experience to highlight an important difference between the way Nigerian society thinks the magical works — cult abuse of power — against the ways the Oha Coven experiences the mystical.

Cults — as they stand today — are much different from their initial purpose. Their most famous originator Wole Soyinka in 1952, along with 6 other men, formed the Pyrate Confraternity while at the University of Ibadan. This group was to fight the power the elite had over the direction their Higher Education institution was going. Today, however, killings, abduction and lecturer intimidation are reportedly the legacy of University confraternities. They are also present in all Universitiesc in Nigeria.

Chukwu finds himself scouted by the Great Red Sharks, — a cult comprised of students and lecturers — where he is forced to begin an inhumane indoctrination process. The first, a thorough beating by all cult members — which one only passes if they live — is only an example of the depths of depravity Chukwu is being asked to descend to. To further drive the point, the land on which Chukwu receives this beating and is expected to endure further debasement holds the corpses of former unlucky initiates. His surviving the beating is due to the help of a friend, Adebayo, a recent successful initiate to the fraternity.

The cult leader, Capo, described by Sunny as “a lamb version of Black Hat;” the Leopard villain she defeats in the first book of the series — leads the Sharks in their meetings which consists of heavy drinking and calling on the devil in Yoruba. Sunny, along with Chichi, accosts them from the shadows as revenge for their cruelty to Chukwu. They introduce the cultists to real mysticism that leaves them all shaken. Where Capo and crew have used physical cruelty to re-inforce ideas of their magical abilities, Sunny and Chichi are able to terrorize from a safe distance without causing lasting damage.

This addition to the novel is important, not only as a discussion about a huge problem on University campuses in Nigeria, but also a chance to explore the place of human cruelty in our understanding of other supernatural ideas. Leopard Knocks and all its characters are multi-dimensional in their representation of the mystical, which is in direct opposition to the one-dimensionality of cult mysticism.

 

Creepie Crawlie City

Undeniably present in Okorafor’s series are a myriad of imagined insects: so well detailed, sometimes loveable, and other times terrifying. The insects contribute to the mysticism of the novel while also giving, in a way only Okorafor can, a credibility to the world she creates. In this installment of the series, there is careful determination that the reader meets and engages with these creatures both great and small. Anyone who follows this YA author on Twitter will be familiar with her proclivity to post unique insects that do exist in the real world, and as such, will not be shocked by their prominence in her writing.

These creatures are additionally fascinating owing to their functionality, history and presence. Nothing in Okorafor’s world exists without purpose or deep roots in Leopard history. A reader will come across the wise Ogwu and her many legged children, the terrifying, crafty Udide, and the mischievous Grashcoatah, amongst a bevy of interesting creatures as the Oha Coven journey to find Osisi. Sceptical about the possibility of being enchanted by creepy crawlies? Be rest-assured that the personalities Okorafor endows these creatures with will have a lasting effect on your feelings towards them.

 

Book Three? Yes Please!

Rather than say that the writing of Sunny And The Mysteries Of Osisi is consistent with its prequel, What Sunny Saw In The Flames, I will say that Okorafor has grown as a writer. The places, people, insects, battles, history and culture were better fleshed out. Though the focus is more on Sunny and Leopard Knocks, Okorafor delves into issues in the real world, bringing up such an important and often ignored conversation on confraternaties. The reader feels more grounded in the mystical world and, like Sunny, is no longer a newbie to Leopard Knocks.

Okorafor is brilliant because she leaves spaces in this book from which the narrative can, and will, be continued. On finishing this novel, I engaged in a twitter conversation with author where she confirmed that though not yet written, a third installation is in the plans. Patience is a virtue I have long sought to acquire. Now is a good time to start practicing. Whenever she chooses to deliver, my very un-young adult self will be first in line to revisit Sunny’s universe.

 

An Advance Reading Copy (ARC) of Nnedi Okorafor's Sunny And The Osisi Mysteries was kindly sent to The Book Banque by Cassava Republic, in exchange for a review. All thoughts expressed in this review are honest, and that of the writer, Niki. Nnedi Okorafor's Sunny And The Osisi Mysteries will be released March 26, 2018.



Notes

a The Oha Coven comprises of Sunny, Sasha, Orlu and Chichi - all adolescents connected to the magical world otherwise referred to as Leopard Knocks. Meet the squad in our review of the prequel here.

b An article by Wellington (2007) on the emergence of student cult groups in Nigeria and their rampant menancing/criminal activties.

c A research article by Arhedo, Aluede and Adomeh on the 'Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria.'